Hello Everyone!

Hey guys it’s been a while since I have last posted. I was very busy for last two weeks. I got my result of class 11 which was not as good as I was expecting. I felt a little disheartened. But now everything is fine!

HAPPY NEW YEAR TO EVERYONE OUT THERE💟🎊🎉😂😁💟😍 It’s quiet late though 😂

Have a blessed and prosperous year ahead. May you accomplish great things and all your dreams come true!💟🎉🎊

Always BELIEVE in yourself and never loose hope🎈

My this year’s new year resolution is not to leave my tasks(to-do list) undone and complete them before going to bed as it is said “Wake up with determination, go to bed with satisfaction”💟🎈💟





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Comets and Meteorites

PLANETS AND MOONS are not the only things whirling round the sun. Along with the earth and its companions are thousands upon thousands of tiny bits and pieces of rock and ice of all shapes and sizes. Some are smaller than a car others are several hundred kilometer across. These lumps of space debris are called asteroids. Every now and then, a very large lump of debris swings in from the outer limits of the solar system, creating a comet in the night sky. And all the time, lumps of this debris cannon into the earth as meteors, some penetrating right through to the ground as meteorites.

Facts: About asteroids

The asteroid belt

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Asteroids are little chunks of debris that never clump together to make a planet when the solar system was young. There are probably a million or more lying in the belt circling the sun between mars and Jupiter.


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The first of the asteroid to be spotted – and the biggest – is Ceres which is as big as Ireland. The brightest is called Vesta, the only asteroid that can be seen with the naked eye.

The Trojan asteroid

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The Trojans are two small group of asteroids that circle the sun on the same orbit as Jupiter.

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Asteroids were first discovered in 1801, after a group of astronomers, calling themselves the celestial police begin hunting fora missing planet they were certain lay somewhere between mars and Jupiter. Nowadays,new asteroids are discovered frequently. Each is given an identification number and is named by the discoverer. Names vary from Greek goddesses to calculators.

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Every day, tons and tons of space debris rain down on the earth, sometimes in such great concentrations that they make a golden rain in the night sky – called a meteor shower – as they hit the earth’s atmosphere and burn up. Meteors are space dust and lumps so small that they burn up long before they hit the ground. Meteorites are big enough to plunge right through the atmosphere and hit the ground. Most of these falls harmlessly into the ocean and vary in size from lumps the size of shoes, to the meteorite the sizeof a car that hit Namibia, Africa, in 1920, creating an enormous crater.

Facts: About Comets

Dirty snowballs

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Comets with their flaming tails are the most spectacular sights in the night sky. But they are actually just dirty balls of ice, a few kilometers across.

Visitors from afar

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Many comets circle the sun like the planets,but they have very long, stretched out orbits and spend most of the their time in the far reaches of the solar system. We see them only when their orbits brings them, for a few weeks, close to the sun.

Glowing tails

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The comets tail is created as the comets hurtles towards the sun and begins to melt. a vast plume of gas, millions of kilometers across, is blown out behind it by the solar wind and this is what we see shining in the night as it catches the sunlight.


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Some comets called periodics, appear at regular intervals. Encke’s comet comes every 1,206 days. Halley’s comet comes every 76 years.

Speeding comets

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comets speed up as they come near the sun, sometimes reaching speeds up to 2 million kmh. but far away from the sun they slow down to speed of little more than 1000 kmh, which is why they stay for so long.

At the heart of the comet is a tiny nucleus of dust and ice

A tail of ionize atoms is blown out millions of kilometers behind the comet by the solar wind

Halley’s comet, discovered by Edmund Halley, appeared before the battle of Hastings in 1066 and some say that it was the star of Bethlehem.

As it swings round the sun, a comet’s tail changes direction. It contains so little solid matter that its is blown out easily by the solar wind, the stream of charged particles flowing from the sun and so always points away from the sun.

What are cycles of Nature?

Nature has various components within it such as water, nutrients (like nitrogen and oxygen) plants and animals. All the components attract each other and their non living environment to form an ecological unit.This interaction in the form of cycles renews the earth gradually.

“In the cycle of nature there is no such thing as victory or defeat; there is only movement”

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Water Cycle

The constant recycling of water within nature is called water cycle. The sunlight makes the water of oceans, rivers and lakes to evaporate and form water vapour. The water vapour rises up into the air and cools and condenses to form water droplets. Millions of water droplets form clouds and when they become heavy, rain or snow occurs. The rain water falls into rivers and streams and flows back to oceans, seas and lakes to begin the water cycle again.

“With every drop of water you drink, every breath you take, you are connected to the sea, no matter where on earth you live”

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Energy cycle

Sun is the source of energy on earth. Sunlight and heat provide us energy for life. It is also used up by plants to make food and store energy. Animals cannot produce their own energy so they eat plants to get energy. When the plants and animals die, they release waste to the environment and heat of the sun is released back into the environment.

“A river or stream is a cycle of energy from sun to plants to insects to fish. It is a continuum broken only by human”

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Animal Life Cycle

A progression through a series of differing stages of development from which an organism passes is called life cycle. All animals have their unique way of reproduction and life cycle. Most animals lay eggs and only few give birth to live young ones. Insects, spiders, birds amphibians and reptiles lay eggs while mammals give birth to live young ones.

“Animals share with us the privilege of having a soul”

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Oxygen Cycle

In the process of photosynthesis plants release oxygen into the atmosphere. We breath in oxygen through respiration and release water and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The plants absorb the carbon dioxide and water to continue the cycle.

“Freedom is the oxygen of soul”

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Carbon Cycle

Plants use carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and make carbohydrate. Animals eat plants and take in these carbohydrates and use them for energy. When they breath out carbon dioxide into the air, it is again used by plants and thus the carbon cycle continues.

“The simplest carbon dioxide removal approach is to plant a tree”

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Nitrogen Cycle

The nitrogen found in the atmosphere, animal wastes and dead and decaying organisms is called free nitrogen. But this can be used only by nitrogen-fixing bacteria that are found in the soil. They convert the free nitrogen into usable forms that can be used by plants, which are further eaten by animals. The animals waste and decaying plants and animals release the nitrogen again into the soil and thus the cycle continues.

“The nitrogen in our DNA, the calcium in our teeth, the iron in our blood, the carbon in our apple pies were made in the interiors of collapsing stars. And we all are made of starstuff”

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An overview for your next ENTREPRENEURSHIP presentation

What is entrepreneurship?

The capacity and willingness to develop, organize and manage a business venture along with any of its risk in order t make profit. The people who create these businesses are called entrepreneurs.

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Entrepreneurial Process

The entrepreneurial process is a process of pursuing a new venture that involves more than just problem solving in a typical management position. An entrepreneur must find, evaluate, and develop an opportunity by overcoming the forces that resist the creation of something new. The process has four phases:

1.Identification and evaluation of opportunity.

2.Development of business plan.

3.Determination of required resources.

4.Management of resulting enterprise.

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Importance of Entrepreneurship

1. Entrepreneurship improves productivity: Entrepreneurship injects the economy with a fresh batch of higher productivity firms, increases competition among existing businesses, and pushes out less productive ones.

2. Entrepreneurship spurs innovation: new firms are disproportionately responsible for commercializing new innovations, particularly radical innovations that spawn entirely new market or substantially disrupt existing markets.

3. Entrepreneurship creates jobs: new and young businesses, not small businesses, are the engine of net job creation in the economy.

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Strategies used by Entrepreneurs

1. Innovation of new products, services or processes

2. Continuous process improvement (CPI)

3. Exploration of new business models

4. Use of technology

5. Use of business intelligence

6. Use of economical strategy

7. Development of future products and services

8. Optimized talent management


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Characteristics that set successful entrepreneurs apart

1. Effective planning

2. Not afraid to take risks

3. Passion and motivation

4. Product and marketing knowledge

5. Adaptable and flexible

6. Strong money management

7. Self-belief, hard work and dedication

8. Right connections

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Benefits of Entrepreneurship

1. Freedom to pursue your vision.

2. The control and flexibility you have of your own time.

3. Opportunity to learn and gain knowledge.

4. The sense of pride and fulfillment in accomplishing things.

5. The highs and lows of self employment.

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Why do people want to become entrepreneurs

1. To change the world.

2. They don’t want a boss.

3. They want flexible hours.

4. They are risk takers.

5. They don’t fit in corporate environment.

6. They are curious.

7. They need a creative outlet.

8. They are ambitious.

Woman In White Blazer Holding Tablet Computer


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What is Universe?

The universe is a huge wide open space that holds everything from the smallest particle to the biggest galaxy. No one knows just how big the universe is. Astronomers try to measure it all the time. They use a special instrument called Spectroscope to tell whether an object is moving away from the earth or towards the earth. Based on the information from instrument, scientists have learned that the universe is still growing outwards in every direction.

Scientists believe that about 13.7 billion years ago, a powerful explosion called “The big bang” happened. This powerful explosion set the universe into motion and this motion continuous even today. Scientists are not yet sure if the motion will stop, change direction or keep going forever.

Amazing Fact: A space vehicle must move at a speed of 11 km per second to escape the earth’s gravitational pull.

Amazing Fact: Scientist believe that hydrogen comprises approximately 90 to 99 percent of all matter in the universe.


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Origin of the universe

Most of the astronomers believe that the universe began in a big bang about 14 billion years ago. At that time, the entire universe was inside a bubble that was thousands of times smaller than a pinhead. It was hotter and denser than anything we can imagine. Then it suddenly exploded. The universe we know was born. Time, space and matter all began with the big bang. In fraction of a second the universe grew from smaller than a single atom to bigger than a galaxy. And it kept on growing at a fantastic rate. It is still expanding.

As the universe expanded and cooled, energy changed into particles of matter and antimatter. These two opposite types of particles largely destroyed each other. But some matter survived. More stable particle called protons and neutrons started to form when the universe was one second old. Over the next three minutes, the temperature dropped below 1 billion degrees Celsius. It was now cool enough for the protons and neutrons, to come tighter and form hydrogen and helium nuclei

After 300000 years, the universe had cooled to about 3000 degrees. Atomic nuclei could finally capture electrons to form atoms. The universe was filled with clouds of hydrogen and helium gas.

Amazing Fact: More than 75 million meteors enter the earth’s atmosphere everyday; but they disintegrate before hitting the ground.

Amazing Fact: There are more stars in the universe than there are grains of sand on Earth.

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The composition of the Universe

The chemical composition of the universe and the physical nature of its constituent matter are the topics that have occupied scientists for centuries. Human being, the air we breathe, and the distant stars all are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons. Astronomers like to call all material made up of protons, neutrons and electrons “baryonic matter”. Until about thirty years ago, astronomers thought that the universe was composed almost entirely of this baryonic matter, ordinary atoms. However, in the past few decades, there has been ever more evidence accumulating that suggests that there is something in the universe that we cannot see, perhaps some new form of matter.

According to the latest observational evidence, ordinary matter, including stars, planets, dust, and gas, only make up tiny fraction of the universe (5 percent). The rest is the elusive dark matter (25 percent) and dark energy (70 percent).

Dark energy: A mysterious (and as yet hypothetical) form of the energy which is spread out uniformly throughout space (and time) and which has anti-gravitational properties. It is one of the possible explanations for the current accelerating rate of the universe.

Dark matter: Matter is not visible to us because it emits no radiation that we can observe, but it is detectable gravitationally.

Hydrogen and Helium gas: Hydrogen and helium gas are the most abundant element in the universe. These elements are found in great abundance in stars and gas giant planets.

Stars: A ball of mostly hydrogen and helium gas that shines extremely brightly. Our sun is a star.

Neutrinos: A small particle that has no charge and is thought to have very little mass. Neutrinos are created in energetic collisions between nuclear particles. The universe is filled with them but they rarely collide with anything.

Heavy elements: Planet like ours.

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Amazing Fact: Did you know that if you fell into a black hole, you would stretch like a spaghetti.

Amazing Fact: The sun travels around the galaxy once every 200 million years- a journey of 100,000 light years.

Age of the  Universe

The age of the universe is defined as the largest possible value of a time like curve from the earth at the present epoch back to the big bang. The time that has elapsed on a hypothetical clock which has existed since the big band and is now here on earth will depend on the motion of the clock. According to the preceding definition, the age of the universe is just the largest possible value of time having elapsed on such a clock. It was estimated to be about 13.7 billion years, with an uncertainty of 200 million years, but some recent studies have brought the conclusion that the universe must be at least 14.7 billion years old.

Amazing Fact: The Universe may have neither a center nor an edge.

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Size of the Universe

The size of the universe is 46 billion light years. This is the distance from the planet earth to the edge of the universe. 1 light year is equal to 9.46 trillion km. The visible universe has the diameter of 93 billion light years.

Amazing Fact: The milky way galaxy is whirling rapidly, spinning our sun and its other stars at around 100 million km per hour!

Amazing Fact: The nearest galaxy to earth is Sagittarius Dwarf. it was discovered in 1954 with a distance of 82 light years away followed by Large Magellanic Cloud.

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Ultimate fate of the Universe

The ultimate fate of the universe is a subject of study if the field of cosmology. Either the universe will exist forever or it will cease to exist at some time. It is unknown which of these possibilities will hold true. It is also not known whether the universe will continue to support life.

The Big Crunch predicts that, after having expanded to its maximum size, the universe will finally collapse into itself to form the greatest black hole ever.

On the opposite side of the coin, the Big Freeze foretells of a universe that will continue to stretch forever, distributing heat evenly in the process until none is left to be usable enough. Hence, it is also known as Heat Death.

A more dramatic version of the Big Freeze is the Big Rip. In this scenario, the universe’s rate ops expansion will increase substantially so that everything in it, down to the smallest atom will be ripped apart.

Amazing Fact: There are approximately 10,000 pieces of material revolving around the earth. About 3,000 of these pieces are satellites, the rest are odd bits of debris.


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